2017年5月30日 星期二

現代性與文學現代主義04 各種現代詩(Modernist Poetry)

在完結了英文世界的現代主義發展之後,這篇文章以及下一篇文章雖然也都會以現代主義為主題,但是會比較偏向文學性質分析

那麼在將我們的焦點從英文世界轉離之後,接下來所要探討的主題,就是個無法僅限縮於英文世界文學的主題-現代詩(Modernist Poetry)

*I:本文章將會包含大量的原文詩詞,不過我會盡量用中文來解釋那些原文詩詞的意思。此外,本文也會包含大量主觀看法,如有冒犯還望請見諒。

*II:由於這篇文章在內容上比較偏文學性,而在歷史與文化的部分比較少,因此可能會顯得比較無聊,希望能多見諒



<現代性與文學現代主義04 各種現代詩>

[I.何謂現代詩]

現代詩之所以名為現代詩,並不僅僅是因為現代詩是20世紀文學的產物,更是因為現代詩是一種劃時代的產物。

其實比起講這種意義不明的話,還是直接切入現代詩界定得主論好了-對於文學史方面的學者來說,1914年到1945年這段期間的詩都是現代詩。

以性質來說,現代詩最基本的一個訴求,其實就是展開對於文體的革命,並且從而創造一種嶄新的文體。

而在內容上,現代詩不僅僅是取材自作者自己的心性發揮,更是來自許許多多的歷史與神話-於是神話與歷史的題材,在現代詩的奇想與幻想部分,逐漸地變成了必備條件。

{附註1:雖然一些現代主義小說會有這樣的傾向,但是這樣的傾向在現代詩的方面,其實是更為明顯的。}

除此之外,由於通訊與交通科技的進步,一些作家也將來自遠東(日本與中國)的文體與文藝形式,納入了作品的風格之中。

於是現代詩成為了文壇上百家爭鳴的地方,而正是因為這樣,也才讓我們得以窺見後來成為了許多作家範本的詩詞。

[II.英語世界的現代詩]

1.      艾略特(T. S. Eliot)

如果要介紹英語世界的現代詩的話,就不得不提及這位以自創文學理論與現代詩而聞名的現代詩名家-艾略特(T. S. Eliot)

其實艾略特早期的詩,就是很典型的以古典文學與神話為題材,並且從而仿造書寫而成的作品(當然此處的話,就不提及艾略特主張的文學理論了。

艾略特在這方面,一個比較典型的作品,就是他一個非常早期的作品《普魯夫洛克的戀歌》(The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock)

從《普魯夫洛克的戀歌》的內容來看,我們不只能夠看到艾略特對於現代社會人們相互冷漠的描繪,也能夠看到一個從頭到尾都在猶豫的敘事者。

但是我們也同時能夠看到,其實艾略特同時用上了許多古典歷史、希臘神話、以及偏古典文學風格的典故。

And indeed there will be time
For the yellow smoke that slides along the street,
Rubbing its back upon the window-panes;
There will be time, there will be time
To prepare a face to meet the faces that you meet;
There will be time to murder and create,
And time for all the works and days of hands
That lift and drop a question on your plate;
Time for you and time for me,
And time yet for a hundred indecisions,
And for a hundred visions and revisions,
Before the taking of a toast and tea.

In the room the women come and go
Talking of Michelangelo.

And indeed there will be time
To wonder, “Do I dare?” and, “Do I dare?”
Time to turn back and descend the stair,
With a bald spot in the middle of my hair —
(They will say: “How his hair is growing thin!”)
My morning coat, my collar mounting firmly to the chin,
My necktie rich and modest, but asserted by a simple pin —
(They will say: “But how his arms and legs are thin!”)
Do I dare
Disturb the universe?
In a minute there is time
For decisions and revisions which a minute will reverse.

取自《普魯夫洛克的戀歌》(The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock)

艾略特的《普魯夫洛克的戀歌》,因為類似形而上詩派的敘事風格,所以有些時候也被稱為形而上詩派復興(Metaphysical Poetry Revival)的文風。

2.      葉慈(William Butler Yeats)

相較於出身美國而後來搬去英國的艾略特,葉慈是個愛爾蘭詩人,並且他老兄也因為主張以愛爾蘭歷史與神話為題材,而成為愛爾蘭復興文風(Celtic Renaissance)的代表人物之一。

所謂的愛爾蘭復興文風,其實就是主張愛爾蘭作家應該以身為愛爾蘭人為傲,並且歌詠只有愛爾蘭專屬的歷史與文化。

{*附註2:雖然話這麼說,不過並非所有的愛爾蘭作家,都有參與或是贊同所謂的愛爾蘭復興文風運動-英國現代主義文學篇提及的喬埃斯,其實是反對愛爾蘭復興文風運動的愛爾蘭作家之一。}

除此之外,愛爾蘭復興文風運動之一的葉慈其實某些程度上,是個政治激進主義者-畢竟愛爾蘭復興文風這個運動,有一部分是1920年代初愛爾蘭從英國獨立而間接造成的。

不過需要注意的一個地方是,葉慈本人雖然提倡愛爾蘭歷史與神話為題材,作為愛爾蘭作家的新題材,但是他本人在寫詩的題材上其實並不只局限於愛爾蘭歷史與神話。

III

O sages standing in God's holy fire
As in the gold mosaic of a wall,
Come from the holy fire, perne in a gyre,
And be the singing-masters of my soul.
Consume my heart away; sick with desire
And fastened to a dying animal
It knows not what it is; and gather me
Into the artifice of eternity.


IV

Once out of nature I shall never take
My bodily form from any natural thing,
But such a form as Grecian goldsmiths make
Of hammered gold and gold enamelling
To keep a drowsy Emperor awake;
Or set upon a golden bough to sing
To lords and ladies of Byzantium
Of what is past, or passing, or to come.

-取自《拜占庭的旅程》(Sailing to Byzantium)

以《拜占庭的旅程》一詩來說,其中所用上的題材,幾乎就包含拜占庭的歷史與傳說,而且也表現出了一個企圖追尋永恆的旅行者的內心。

3.      奧登(W. H. Auden)

相較於上面所提及的葉慈與艾略特,奧登在英語世界現代詩的地位中,其實是有些爭議的-一些學者認為奧登的才能遜於葉慈與艾略特,而一些學者則認為奧登的才能優於葉慈與艾略特。

奧登在寫詩的題材上,不僅僅限於古典神話與歷史,而是也包含了政治、道德、心理學以及社會現象。

About suffering they were never wrong,
The Old Masters: how well they understood
Its human position; how it takes place
While someone else is eating or opening a window or just
walking dully along;
How, when the aged are reverently, passionately waiting
For the miraculous birth, there always must be
Children who did not specially want it to happen, skating
On a pond at the edge of the wood:
They never forgot
That even the dreadful martyrdom must run its course
Anyhow in a corner, some untidy spot
Where the dogs go on with their doggy
life and the torturer’s horse
Scratches its innocent behind on a tree.

In Breughel’s Icarus, for instance: how everything turns away
Quite leisurely from the disaster; the ploughman may
Have heard the splash, the forsaken cry,
But for him it was not an important failure; the sun shone
As it had to on the white legs disappearing into the green
Water; and the expensive delicate ship that must have seen
Something amazing, a boy falling out of the sky,
had somewhere to get to and sailed calmly on.

-《美術館中的一幅畫》(Musée des Beaux Arts)

像《美術館中的一幅畫》,雖然是用一幅描繪希臘神話中伊卡洛斯墜海而死的繪畫而主題切入,其中的意涵卻是指涉其實社會上大多數人都沒有意識到其他人的狀況,而是都只顧自己

He was found by the Bureau of Statistics to be
One against whom there was no official complaint,
And all the reports of his conduct agree
That, in the modern sense of the old-fashioned word, he was a saint,
For in everything he did he served the Greater Community.
Except for the war till the day he retired
He worked in a factory and never got fired,
But satisfied his employers, Fudge Motors Inc.
Yet he wasn’t a scab or odd in his views,
For his union reports that he paid his dues,
(Our report of his union shows it was sound)
And our Social Psychology workers found
That he was popular with his mates and liked a drink.
The Press are convinced that he bought a paper every day,
And that his reactions to advertisements were normal in every way.

-取自《無名的市民》(The Unknown citizen)

而《無名的市民》這首詩,則是用政府官員報告的口吻,講述一個絕對完美、如同機械的市民(暗指當時社會中,大多數的人的行為,其實都差不多)

[III.其他的現代詩]

把英語世界的現代詩部分完結之後,接下來的這個區塊,就是要談論非英語世界的現代詩作品了

1.      內魯達(Pablo Neruda)

生於智利(Chile)的詩人.內魯達(Pablo Neruda),在寫作風格也是一個非常典型的現代詩詩人,而且也是拉丁美洲最有名的近現代文學家之一

而內魯達最為有名的詩詞作品,大概就是打從1930年代末期就已經在寫,並且到了1950年才完成的《詩詞總集》(Canto General)

內魯達他老兄寫《詩詞總集》的目標,其實就是希望以一個出身中南美洲的人的視角,來描繪中南美洲的歷史與文化

而在《詩詞總集》的十五個作品之中,最為人所知的作品,就是《馬丘比丘的高度》(The Heights of Macchu Picchu,西班牙文:Alturas de Machu Picchu)

Look at me from the depths of the earth, you,
the farm worker, the weaver, the quiet shepherd,
the tamer of guardian guanacos,
the mason on his defied scaffolding,
the water carrier bearing Andean tears,
the jeweler with crushed fingers,
the farmer trembling among his seeds,
you, the potter poured in your clay,
all ye, bring to the cup
of this new life
your ancient buried sorrows.
Show me your blood
and your furrow,
tell me: here I was punished
because the jewel did not shine or the earth
failed to yield enough stone
or enough corn:
point to the rock on which you fell
and the wood on which they crucified you;
strike the old flints,
turn on the old lamps, crack the whips embedded
throughout the centuries in your wounds
and the axes with blood-encrusted sparkle.

I am coming to speak for and through your dead mouths.
Throughout the earth, join together
all the scattered silent lips,
and out of the depths speak to me during this long night
as if I were anchored to you.
Tell me everything, chain by chain,
link by link, and step by step.
Sharpen the knives
you'd locked away,
put them on my breast and into my hands,
like a river of yellow lightening,
like a river of buried tigers,
and let me cry, hours, days, years,
blind ages, stellar centuries.

-取自《馬丘比丘的高度》(The Heights of Macchu Picchu)

其實《馬丘比丘的高度》這一首詩的著作,是源自內魯達在1943年的時候,前去位於祕魯的古代印加城市.馬丘比丘(Machu Picchu)之後寫的



而位於高山上的馬丘比丘,根據考察是由古代印加皇族所居住的皇城,並且也是印加帝國規模最大的城市

此處可以看出,內魯達的這首《馬丘比丘的高度》是以自由格律詩體(Free Verse)著作而成,並且最直接的對象就是馬丘比丘

不過內魯達在詩中將馬丘比丘擬人化,而這其實也是一種有趣的寫作手法-因為我們可以從詩中,看到內魯達正在與馬丘比丘進行的「對話」

不過提及《馬丘比丘的高度》的手法,就不得不說-其實內魯達在一些其他的詩作中,其實都或多或少有使用擬人化的手法

Here,  
among the market vegetables,
this torpedo
from the ocean  
depths,  
a missile  
that swam,
now  
lying in front of me
dead.

Surrounded
by the earth's green froth  
—these lettuces,
bunches of carrots—
only you  
lived through
the sea's truth, survived
the unknown, the
unfathomable
darkness, the depths  
of the sea,
the great  
abyss,
le grand abîme,
only you:  
varnished
black-pitched  
witness
to that deepest night.

-取自《獻給魚市場上的鮪魚之頌》(Ode to a Large Tuna in the Market)

正如同《馬丘比丘的高度》中所使用的手法,內魯達也同樣在此用上了擬人化的手法,並且與魚市場中的一條鮪魚進行「對話」

2.      卡瓦菲斯(Constantine Cavafy)

卡瓦菲斯是個出身希臘的現代主義詩人,並且也同時被認定為希臘在二十世紀的時候,最為出色的文學家之一

不過卡瓦菲斯在世的時候,並沒有出版特別多的詩-而一些人認為,這很有可能是因為卡瓦菲斯是同性戀,而他老兄的一些詩則透露出這樣的傾向

但是即便卡瓦菲斯在一些詩上的確有透露出微妙的情色風格,但是他在詩的寫作上,卻也十分喜歡運用古典希臘的歷史與神話作為題材

As you set out for Ithaka
hope your road is a long one,
full of adventure, full of discovery.
Laistrygonians, Cyclops,
angry Poseidon—don’t be afraid of them:
you’ll never find things like that on your way
as long as you keep your thoughts raised high,
as long as a rare excitement
stirs your spirit and your body.
Laistrygonians, Cyclops,
wild Poseidon—you won’t encounter them
unless you bring them along inside your soul,
unless your soul sets them up in front of you.

Hope your road is a long one.
May there be many summer mornings when,
with what pleasure, what joy,
you enter harbors you’re seeing for the first time;
may you stop at Phoenician trading stations
to buy fine things,
mother of pearl and coral, amber and ebony,
sensual perfume of every kind—
as many sensual perfumes as you can;
and may you visit many Egyptian cities
to learn and go on learning from their scholars.

Keep Ithaka always in your mind.
Arriving there is what you’re destined for.
But don’t hurry the journey at all.
Better if it lasts for years,
so you’re old by the time you reach the island,
wealthy with all you’ve gained on the way,
not expecting Ithaka to make you rich.

取自《伊薩卡》(Ithaka)

像卡瓦菲斯著作的這首《伊薩卡》,他的談話對象就是希臘神話中的英雄人物.奧德賽,而且其中的意涵就是在強調冒險與旅程

He didn’t know, King Kleomenis, he didn’t dare—
he just didn’t know how to tell his mother
a thing like that: Ptolemy’s demand,
to guarantee their treaty, that she too go to Egypt
and be held there as a hostage—
a very humiliating, indecorous thing.
And he would be about to speak yet always hesitate,
would start to tell her yet always stop.

But the magnificent woman understood him
(she’d already heard some rumors about it)
and she encouraged him to get it out.
And she laughed, saying of course she’d go,
happy even that in her old age
she could be useful to Sparta still.

As for the humiliation—that didn’t touch her at all.
Of course an upstart like the Lagid
couldn’t possibly comprehend the Spartan spirit;
so his demand couldn’t in fact humiliate
a Royal Lady like herself:
mother of a Spartan king.

-《斯巴達》(In Sparta)

而卡瓦菲斯著作的這首《斯巴達》,則是以斯巴達國王.克雷歐梅尼斯作為主要對象,並且述說國王必須依照法老王的請求將母親送到埃及當人質。

國王雖然猶豫該怎麼向母親說明,但是國王的母親自認也是斯巴達人,被送去當人質自然不可能對自己構成任何侮蔑。


那麼現代詩的篇章就在此結束(雖然主要的原因,是因為現代詩並非我的專長領域),下一個篇章,就是現代戲劇(Modernist Theater)了。

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